Dealing with major public health emergencies requires a conceptual framework to reflect the connotation and extension of data governance. This paper constructs a conceptual framework of "5WHR" data governance for major public health emergencies with reference to relevant achievements at home and abroad. The framework is composed of seven parts: organization (Who), data (What), domain (Where), mechanism (How), influencing factors (Why), time (When) and conclusion (Results). On this basis, the paper firstly discusses the application of the conceptual framework of data governance from seven aspects: analyzing the influencing factors of data governance, confirming the time of data governance, determining the organizations involved in data governance, making clear the data that need to be focused on governance, putting forward the key issues of data governance, establishing a good data governance mechanism and evaluating the effect of data governance, and then puts forward the problems that need to be explored and solved urgently in current data governance. The achievements of this study provide theoretical support and application examples for carrying out relevant data governance research and practice, and help the academic circles and the industry to fully grasp the issues that need to be studied in current data governance, and improve data governance ability.