Using data governance to prevent, respond to and resolve major public health emergencies is an important part of the modernization of national governance system and governance capacity in the new era. In terms of connotation, data governance has the nature of general provisions and conventions of social / national governance, and it is the embodiment and analysis of social / national governance. On the extension, data governance is an organic system formed by objectives, relationships, mechanisms, rules, behaviors and technologies. In the new crown epidemic prevention and control, data governance has played a huge role, but also exposed in the main (relationship), mechanism, specification, technology and other aspects of the real dilemma. To solve the dilemma of data governance, we should optimize four paths: from the value level, data-oriented to people-oriented; from the relationship level, bureaucratic control to equal co governance; from the mechanism level, results oriented theory to procedural; from the normative level, willful human governance to rational rule of law.