The Belt and Road initiative is a development and innovation of Marx's theory of international communication, demonstrating the deep integration of theory and reality. At present, the Belt and Road has entered a new stage of high-quality development. In order to achieve sustainable high-quality development of the Belt and Road, it is necessary to understand its scientific connotation. That is, the high-quality development of the Belt and Road must be driven by the progress of productivity, creating a good external supporting environment through cultural exchanges and cooperation, with the basic goal of achieving all-round human development. Under the new situation, the high-quality development of the Belt and Road still faces a few difficulties such as non-traditional security factors leading to slow progress in some projects, insufficient systematic planning of some projects affecting the construction efficiency, certain hindrances from incomplete recognition. In this regard, we need to build consensus among countries along the routes and promoting high-quality development of the Belt and Road through the following pathways: participating in multilateral cooperation to greatly enhance the quality and efficiency of development; standardizing cooperation mechanisms to effectively improve people's living standards; and promoting external communication and creating a favorable public opinion environment.