The non-public ownership economy is a very important part of the national economy of Anhui Province, and it has made important contribution to the economic and social development of Anhui Province. This paper first defines the connotations of the structural reforms of the supply side and economic vitality, then it analyzes the impact mechanisms of supply-side structural reform on non-public ownership economy in Anhui Province. However, in the context of the structural reforms of the supply side, the non-public economy of Anhui Province faces both rare development opportunities, such as the ability to increase production, reduction costs and makong up shortcomings, which will help to further improve the vitality of non-public ownership economy in Anhui Province. At the same time, the non-public economy of Anhui Province is also facing severe challenges. Finally, some practical countermeasures are put forward to optimize the ownership structure of Anhui Province and improve its basic economic system.